Raphael Flepp, Stephan Nüesch, Egon Franck, The Liquidity Advantage of QuoteDriven Markets: Evidence from the Betting Industry, In: UZH Business Working Paper Series, No. 342, 2013. (Working Paper)
This paper investigates the puzzling coexistence of the quotedriven market structure characterized by traditional bookmakers and the orderdriven market structure characterized by betting exchanges in the betting industry. Even though betting exchanges are considered as the superior business model due to less operational risk and lower information costs, bookmakers continue to be successful. We show that liquidity, which is only guaranteed at the bookmaker market, significantly improves the bookmakers' price competitiveness. Using matched panel data of both bookmaker and betting exchange odds for 17,682 soccer matches played worldwide, we find that a major bookmaker offers more favorable odds than a major betting exchange in the early preplay betting period and less favorable odds shortly before match start. 

Raphael Flepp, Stephan Nüesch, Egon Franck, Liquidity, Market Efficiency and the Influence of Noise Traders: QuasiExperimental Evidence from the Betting Industry, In: UZH Business Working Paper Series, No. 341, 2013. (Working Paper)
This paper examines how liquidity affects market efficiency in a market environment where securities' fundamental values are revealed at a predetermined point in time. We employ differences in minimum tick sizes at the betting exchange Betfair which induce exogenous variation in liquidity. The results show that liquidity significantly decreases market efficiency for bets on weekend matches but not for bets on weekday matches. As uninformed noise bettors are more likely to bet on weekends than on weekdays, the type of liquidity seems to matter for market efficiency. 

Philipp Böhme, Walter Pohl, Karl Schmedders, The Perils of Performance Measurement in the German MutualFund Industry, In: Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper , No. 1330, 2013. (Working Paper)
We document a curious feature of the German mutual fund industry. Unlike U.S. mutual funds, funds domiciled in Germany do not necessarily compute their net asset values (NAV) as of market close. Using a sample of German equity funds, we infer each fund's NAV closing time from the bestfit market model using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation. The results of both approaches coincide perfectly and show that all but one of the funds domiciled in Germany report intraday NAVs. We show that using market returns computed at the end of the day instead of the bestfit time, usually leads to misleading inferences about mutual fund performance.


Matthias Thul, Ally Quan Zhang, Analytical option pricing under an asymmetrically displaced double gamma jumpdiffusion model, In: SSRN, No. 2311673, 2014. (Working Paper)
We generalize the Kou (2002) double exponential jumpdiusion model in two directions. First, we independently displace the two tails of the jump size distribution away from the origin. Second, we allow for each of the displaced tails to follow a gamma distribution with an integervalued shape parameter. Both extensions introduce additional exibility in the tails of the corresponding return distribution. Our model is supported by an equilibrium economy and we obtain closedform solutions for European plain vanilla options. Our valuation function is computationally fast to evaluate and robust across the full parameter space. We estimate the physical model parameters through maximum likelihood and for a diverse sample of equities, commodities and exchange rates. For all assets under consideration, the original Kou (2002) model can be rejected in favor of our newly introduced asymmetrically displaced double gamma dynamics. 

Christopher Wickert, Andreas Scherer, Laura J Spence, Implementing and communicating corporate social responsibility: Implications of firm size and organizational cost, In: UZH Business Working Paper Series, No. 339, 2014. (Working Paper)


Nick Netzer, Björn Bartling, An externalityrobust auction  theory and experimental evidence, In: SSRN, No. 2359529, 2013. (Working Paper)
An auction is said to be externalityrobust if unilateral deviations from equilibrium leave the remaining bidders’ payoffs unaffected. The equilibrium and its outcome will then persist even if externalities between bidders arise from certain types of interdependent preferences. One important example are externalities due to spiteful preferences, which are frequently used to explain overbidding in auctions. Another important example are crossshareholdings between firms that compete in an auction. For the independent private values model, we derive an auction that coincides with the secondprice auction (SPA) in terms of efficiency and expected revenue, and, in contrast to the secondprice auction, is also externalityrobust. The externalityrobust auction (ERA) is a firstprice auction in which truthful bidding is encouraged by bonus payments. We test the robustness property experimentally by comparing the outcomes of the SPA and the ERA. We replicate the earlier finding of significant average overbidding in the SPA, while we find no overbidding on average in the ERA. We also conduct additional treatments where bidders play against the computer, and we use controls for cognitive skills and joy of winning to further pin down the reasons behind the subjects’ bidding behavior and to understand the sources of individual heterogeneity. 

Dennis Schoeneborn, Leonhard Dobusch, Lessons in Fluidity: Anonymous and the Communicative Formation of Organizational Identity, In: UZH Business Working Paper, No. 335, 2013. (Working Paper)
Most research on organizational identity tends to take an essentialist perspective, differentiating between an identity construed internally by members of the organization and an image construed by external actors. However, the duality of identity and image struggles with capturing more fluid, open, or partial organizational arrangements, where it is difficult to uphold this distinction. Looking at the case of the hacker collective Anonymous as an extreme example of organization, this paper proposes to adopt a communicationcentered perspective in order to better understand the formation of organizational identity. Drawing on the emerging “communicative constitution of organizations” (CCO) framework, we transcend both an essentialist and a membercentered view by arguing that organizational identity is achieved through communicative events that demarcate the boundaries between actions attributed either to the organization or to the organizational environment. 

Markus Leippold, Lujing Su, Collateral Smile, In: Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series, No. 1151, 2013. (Working Paper)


Markus Leippold, Jürg Syz, The Trend is Your Friend: Absence of Pin Risk in Trend Options and Time Diversification, In: SSRN, No. 796070, 2005. (Working Paper)
Options whose payoff are linked to the trend of an underlying rather than to the underlying itself have many advantages, both for investors and hedgers. We describe the properties of trend options and show how the pin risk of these contracts is withdrawn. 

Markus Leippold, Daniel Egloff, Curdin Dalbert, Stephan Jöhri, Optimal Importance Sampling for Credit Portfolios with Stochastic Approximation, In: SSRN, No. 693441, 2005. (Working Paper)
We introduce an adaptive importance sampling method for the loss distribution of credit portfolios based on the RobbinsMonro stochastic approximation procedure. After presenting the subtle construction of the algorithm, we apply our adaptive scheme for calculating the risk figures of a typical mediumsized credit risk portfolio with 2000 obligors. Simulating the tail of the loss distribution, we can improve significantly the variance reduction and outperform other recently proposed importance sampling approaches that are based on deterministic methods providing asymptotically optimal importance sampling distributions. Furthermore, the simple structure of the algorithm not only allows a straightforward implementation, but also offers a lot of flexibility for extensions to more complex models. Therefore, our numerical results motivate interesting future research paths for the application of stochastic approximation methods in risk management. 

Markus Leippold, Fabio Trojani, Asset Pricing with Matrix Jump Diffusions, In: SSRN, No. 1274482, 2008. (Working Paper)
We introduce a new class of flexible and tractable matrix affine jumpdiffusions (AJD) to model multivariate sources of financial risk. We first provide a complete transform analysis of this model class, which opens a range of new potential applications to, e.g., multivariate option pricing with stochastic volatilities and correlations, fixedincome models with stochastically correlated default intensities, or multivariate dynamic portfolio choice with volatility and correlation jumps. We then study in more detail some of the new structural features of our modeling approach in two applications to option pricing and dynamic portfolio choice. First, we find that a threefactor matrix AJD model can generate variations of the implied volatility skew term structures that are largely unrelated to the level and composition of the spot volatility. This feature can allow the model to improve on benchmark AJD settings in reproducing the overall shape of the smile of equity index options. Second, we find that volatility and correlation jumps can imply an economically relevant intertemporal hedging demand in optimal dynamic portfolios, when jump intensities exhibit comovement with the returns’ covariance. 

Markus Leippold, Andreas Bloechlinger, Basile Maire, Are ratings the worst form of credit assessment apart from all the others?, In: Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper, No. 1209, 2013. (Working Paper)


Markus Leippold, Meriton Ibraimi, The Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing on Measurable Spaces under Uncertainty, In: SSRN, No. 2257882, 2013. (Working Paper)


Chris Bardgett, Elise Gourier, Markus Leippold, Inferring volatility dynamics and risk premia from the S&P 500 and VIX markets, In: Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper, No. 1340, 2015. (Working Paper)


Laurent E Calvet, Adlai J Fisher, Markus Leippold, What's Beneath the Surface? Option Pricing with Multifrequency Latent States, In: HEC Paris Research Paper, No. 969/2013, 2013. (Working Paper)
We introduce a tractable class of nonaffine price processes with multifrequency stochastic volatility and jumps. The specications require few xed parameters and deliver fast option pricing. One key ingredient is a tight link between jumps and volatility regimes, as asset pricing theory suggests. Empirically, the model matches implied volatility surfaces and their dynamics without requiring parameter recalibration. A variety of metrics show improvements over traditional benchmarks in and outofsample. 

Markus Leippold, Don't Rely on VaR!, In: SSRN, No. 981134, 2004. (Working Paper)
Belief that a single number can capture the degree of risk being taken within a bank or an investment is mistaken  especially when that number is value at risk. Markus Leippold explains why the measure is flawed, points to the dangers of its widespread acceptance by regulators and investors, and suggests an alternative. 

Andreas Hefti, Martin Grossmann, Lang Markus, Aggregative contests with heterogeneous agents, In: ISU working paper, No. 161, 2013. (Working Paper)


Gregor Philipp Reich, Divide and Conquer: A New Approach to Dynamic Discrete Choice with Serial Correlation, In: SSRN, No. ?, 2013. (Working Paper)
In this paper, we develop a method to efficiently estimate dynamic discrete choice models with AR(n) type serial correlation of the errors. First, to approximate the expected value function of the underlying dynamic problem, we use Gaussian quadrature, interpolation over an adaptively refined grid, and solve a potentially large nonlinear system of equations. Second, to evaluate the likelihood function, we decompose the integral over the unobserved state variables in the likelihood function into a series of lower dimensional integrals, and successively approximate them using Gaussian quadrature rules. Finally, we solve the maximum likelihood problem using a nested fixed point algorithm. We then apply this method to obtain point estimates of the parameters of the bus engine replacement model of Rust [Econometrica, 55 (5): 999–1033, (1987)]: First, we verify the algorithm's ability to recover the parameters of an artificial data set, and second, we estimate the model using the original data, finding significant serial correlation for some subsamples. 

Jacob Stromberg, Markus Leippold, TimeChanged Levy LIBOR Market Model for the Joint Estimation and Pricing of Caps and Swaptions, In: SFI Research Paper Series, No. 1223, 2012. (Working Paper)


Philipp Johannes Renner, Karl Schmedders, A polynomial optimization approach to principalagent problems, In: Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper, No. 1235, 2013. (Working Paper)
This paper presents a new method for the analysis of moral hazard principalagent problems. The new approach avoids the stringent assumptions on the distribution of outcomes made by the classical firstorder approach and instead only requires the agent's expected utility to be a rational function of the action. This assumption allows for a reformulation of the agent's utility maximization problem as an equivalent system of equations and inequalities. This reformulation in turn transforms the principal's utility maximization problem into a nonlinear program. Under the additional assumptions that the principal's expected utility is a polynomial and the agent's expected utility is rational in the wage, the final nonlinear program can be solved to global optimality. The paper also shows how to first approximate expected utility functions that are not rational by polynomials, so that the polynomial optimization approach can be applied to compute an approximate solution to nonpolynomial problems. Finally, the paper demonstrates that the polynomial optimization approach, unlike the classical approach, extends to principalagent models with multidimensional action sets. 
